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Controller Development for an Automotive AC-system using R744 as Refrigerant

Karim, S. and Tummescheit H.

March 3, 2008

Proceedings of the 6th International Modelica Conference

Bielefeld, Germany, pp. 477-485


Under the Kyoto protocol agreement, by the year 2012, industrialized countries have to reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gas 5% below their 1990 levels. Since the current refrigerant used in vehicles, R134a, has a GWP (Global Warming Potential) of 1410, R744 (CO2) technology has been proposed as a natural alternative to current R134a-based systems. The main benefits of R744 as a refrigerant are:
• Energy-efficient
• Non-toxic
• Non-flammable
• No ozone depletion potential (ODP=0)
• Low global warming potential (GWP=1)
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